Schedule an initial consultation at one of these locations:

Utah Vascular Clinic


650 East 4500 South, Suite 100
Salt Lake City, UT 84107

Ogden Regional Medical Center


5475 South 500 East
Washington Terrace, UT 84405



Vascular Ultrasound and Noninvasive Vascular Testing (ABI's Segmental pressures, etc.)

What tests are available to evaluate the blood vessels?

Vascular tests include non-invasive physiologic exams, vascular duplex, and cross-sectional imaging such as CT and MR angiography.

What is a noninvasive vascular exam?

A "Noninvasive Vascular Exam" generally refers to a physiologic test of the circulation of the arms or legs using blood pressure cuffs and blood flow graphs. The simplest test is called an Ankle-Brachial Index, or ABI. The ABI is a ratio of the blood pressure in the arms to the blood pressure in the ankles. A normal ABI is usually in the 0.9 to 1.3 range. An ABI less than 0.9 indicates the presence artery blockage in the legs.

A more extensive test called Segmental Pressures, sometimes shortened as "Segmentals", is a more complete physiologic blood pressure exam that helps to determine not just the presence, but the specific location of artery blockages in the legs.

What vascular ultrasound?

A vascular ultrasound, or "duplex", combines ultrasound images of the blood vessels with Doppler detection of blood flow. During a vascular ultrasound, sound waves are transmitted through the tissues in the area being examined. These sound waves reflect off tissues and are collected to create a real-time image. Sound waves also reflect off of blood cells moving within the blood vessels, allowing the ultrasound computer to calculate their speed using the Doppler Principle. Doppler data can be displayed graphically or as a red and blue color image.

Vascular ultrasound is used to evaluate both arteries and veins. The veins are most often examined to detect blood clots in the legs, commonly referred to as “deep vein thrombosis” (DVT). The veins are also examined to diagnose abnormal function and plan treatment in patients with lower extremity varicose veins and edema. Vascular ultrasound of the arteries is used to evaluate and monitor aortic aneurysms, carotid artery stenosis, arterial and venous stents, bypass grafts, and hemodialysis fistulas and grafts.

What are CT and MR angiography?

An angiogram is an image of the blood vessels in the body. A traditional angiogram is an invasive test that required injection of contrast media, or "x-ray dye", through a catheter placed into an artery. With advances in CT and MRI technology, blood vessel images can now be obtained non-invasively as well. A CT or MR angiogram still requires the injection of contrast, but it is given through an IV placed into a vein in the arm. A CT angiogram can be performed in as little as 5 minutes. An MR angiogram can take up to 45 minutes to perform. Because of these advances, invasive angiograms are rarely used for diagnosis alone, but are almost always as part of an interventional procedure.

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Do you know the signs & symptoms?

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot forms in one of the deep veins of your body, usually in your legs, but sometimes in your arm.

  • Swelling, usually in one leg
    (or arm)
  • Leg pain or tenderness often described as a cramp or
    Charley horse
  • Reddish or bluish skin discoloration
  • Leg (or arm) warm to touch

Pulmonary Embolism

Clots can break off from a DVT and travel to the lung, causing a pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be fatal.

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Chest pain-sharp, stabbing; may get worse with deep breath
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Unexplained cough, sometimes with bloody mucus